SECTION 01 | ENERGY SECTION 01 | ENERGY 6 Many of the solutions highlighted in this booklet are contributing to the MI Innovation Challenges. Innovation Challenges are global calls to action aimed at accelerating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) in technology areas where Mission Innovation members believe increased international attention can make a significant impact in our shared fight against climate change. INNOVATION CHALLENGES 02 OFF-GRID ACCESS Developing systems that enable off-grid households and communities to access affordable and reliable renewable electricity 04 SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS Developing ways to produce, at scale, widely affordable, advanced biofuels for transportation and industrial applications 01 SMART GRIDS Enabling future grids that are powered by affordable, reliable, decentralised renewable electricity systems 03 CARBON CAPTURE Enabling near-zero CO2 emissions from power plants and carbon intensive industries 7 06 CLEAN ENERGY MATERIALS Accelerating the exploration, discovery, and use of new high-performance, low-cost clean energy materials 05 CONVERTING SUNLIGHT Discovering affordable ways to convert sunlight into storable solar fuels 07 AFFORDABLE HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS Making low-carbon heating and cooling affordable for everyone 08 HYDROGEN Accelerating development of a global hydrogen market by identifying and overcoming key barriers to the production, distribution, storage, and use of hydrogen at gigawatt scale