SECTION 01 | ENERGY 42 09 ATACAMA MODULES, SYSTEMS & TECHNOLOGY CENTER (ATAMOSTEC) The Atacama Desert, in the north of Chile has the highest levels of solar irradiation in the world. However, this region faces a number of specific challenges which effects the scale-up of the use of photovoltaics. This include high levels of ultra violet radiation, temperature over the solar panels of up to 70°c degrees, dust, water scarcity and a high seismic activity. In 2016 the Chilean Government funded a consortium involving several Chilean Universities, Fraunhofer (Germany), the National Solar Energy Institute (France) and 19 companies to carry out applied research and development. The consortium aims to adapt and develop appropriate photovoltaic technologies for desert zone conditions and high solar irradiation, in terms of durability and expected yields, with the target to reduce the energy cost level by the year 2025. CHILE DE,FR SECTION 02 43 10 BREAKTHROUGH’S IN SOLAR CONVERSION EFFICIENCIES Japan aims to reduce the cost of solar power generation to $0.06 per kWh by 2030 through its innovation programme. As part of the programme, several breakthroughs have been achieved in this technology area. Sharp Corporation has achieved one of the world’s highest conversion efficiency for a solar module (31.17% for 968 cm2). A triple-junction compound was used to capture a wider range of the spectrum of sunlight. Kaneka Corporation has also achieved the world’s highest conversion efficiency in a crystalline silicon solar cell of practical size (26.33% for 180 cm²). By combining heterojunction technology, low resistance electrode technology, and a back-contact structure achieved capture of more solar energy. JAPAN RENEWABLE ENERGY