National Innovation Pathway

Major areas of R&D in clean energy include solar power and its integration in grid, Sustainable and affordable biofuels, including CBG for transport sector, Carbon dioxide capture, sequestration and utilisation , advanced materials , Hydrogen generation ,storage and applications,  Advanced biotechnology tools in algae, energy efficiency , MSW to energy. 

Govt. of India has set out national missions to promote India’s sustainable development objectives, which are as follows:

  • National Solar Mission: is a major initiative of the Government of India targeting installing 100 GW grid-connected solar power plants by the year 2022[1].
  • National Biofuel Policy has the objective of reaching 20% ethanol-blending and 5% biodiesel-blending of fuel by the year 2030[2].
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency aims to strengthen the market for energy efficiency through implementation of innovative business models in the energy efficiency sector[3].
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat aims to make cities sustainable through improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, management of solid waste & shift to public transport.
  • National Mission for a Green India is aimed at protecting, restoring and enhancing diminishing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures.
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture seeks to address issues regarding ‘Sustainable Agriculture’ in the context of risks associated with climate change.
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change aims to build a dynamic and vibrant knowledge system that informs and supports national policy and action for responding effectively to climate change challenges, while not compromising on the nation’s growth goals.
  • National Bioenergy Mission aims to boost rural economy by utilizing bio-resources and create a large number of jobs at village level.
  • National Hydrogen Mission for generating hydrogen from green power sources, its storage, transport and utilization and specifically a micro mission on biomass to hydrogen is also would be undertaken.
  • Mission on the scaling of indigenous cellulolytic enzymes for 2G Ethanol and development of technologies for next-generation clean fuels including Bio-Butanol, Bio-Hydrogen and Bio-Jet fuel.
  • Mission on Waste to Value Technologies: Operationalise technology platforms designed to convert different solid, liquid and gaseous wastes into renewable fuels, energy and useful products like food, feed and polymers & chemicals.
  • Apart from the above India is also engaged in various R, D & D Activities in lines with national and international priorities through regular R&D Programmes-
    • India is actively engaged in global calls (MI Challenges) and active participant in all the eight MI challenges and is a co-lead in three challenges (Smart Grids, Off-Grid access to Electricity and Sustainable Biofuels)
    • Under Clean India (Swachh Bharat) Mission, waste to energy initiatives are being undertaken in terms of R, D & D on generation of energy from waste. The programme is aimed to develop / demonstrate novel and viable technologies for sustainable utilization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) for cleaner and pollution free environment as well as generation of the energy.
    • Fellowship Programs B-ACER, Bioenergy Overseas Fellowship Indian Biological Engineering Competition
    • Clean Energy Materials: supported projects to develop high performance low cost clean energy materials for energy harnessing, energy storage and energy efficiency for diverse sectors such as power, buildings, transportation, storage and construction.
    • Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Created new benchmarks in energy efficient technologies through programmes like global cooling prize pushing the climate impact reduction by 5 times. Bilateral international programs as a part of the challenge helped in reducing energy demands. DST is taking an active role in furthering thermal comfort research and its dovetailing with building energy efficiency. A research program on comfort driven HVAC system control is being conceived. Actively participating in shaping the MI 2.0 Cities mission and Innovation Communities on Affordable Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Targeting to initiate R&D on ultra-efficient low energy cooling technology during the next five years.
    • Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage: Supported 22 RD&D projects addressing various research areas related to Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage. DST is also a joint multilateral call on Accelerating CCUS Technologies (ACT Call 3) launched along with the other 13 ACT member consortia countries.
    • National Biotechnology Development Strategy- 2020-25’’: Document outlines India’s strength and confidence in delivering a knowledge Driven Bioeconomy. Implementation plan includes Mission on the scaling of indigenous cellulolytic enzymes for 2G Ethanol and development of technologies for next-generation clean fuels including Bio-Butanol, Bio-Hydrogen and Bio-Jetfuel.
    • Mission Power: MI Innovation Challenge on Smart Grids IC1 has transformed to the Power Mission. This will provide an opportunity to exploit the good collaborative work performed together by IC1 under the strong leadership of China, India and Italy and to utilize it at best in the new Power Mission. The mission aims to foster the integration of extremely high level of variable renewable energy sources into power systems. This Mission aims to demonstrate that by 2030 power systems in different geographies and climates, are able to effectively integrate up to 100% variable renewable energies, like wind and solar, in their generation mix and maintain a cost-efficient, secure and resilient system. India supports this Mission.
    • Mission Shipping: The proposed Shipping Mission collaboration, covering ‘The Ship,’ “fuel production” and “fuel infrastructure”, to support an innovative environment in which entrepreneurs and innovators can continue to develop/innovate clean energy alternatives that will benefit maritime and energy technologies. The objective covering development of low carbon fuels like methanol, CBG, Hydrogen and ammonia is a priority for India in line with National Biofuel policy. India supports this Mission and plans to develop joint R&D projects in these areas and also study the logistics of storing and transport of these low carbon fuels for shipping.
    • National Hydrogen Mission (NHM): Recently, the Finance Minister in the Union budget for 2020-21 formally announced the National Hydrogen Mission(NHM) which aims for generation of hydrogen from green power resources. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has also disclosed that the draft regulations for NHM will be finalised by the end of this month and will thereafter proceed for approval of the Union Cabinet [3]. NHM will emphasize on generating green hydrogen and enabling its commercial use as a transportation fuel. India has supported large R&D projects for Hydrogen generation through biomass gasification, bio technology routes and from electrolysers. Programmes have been supported on hydrogen storage, safety and applications in IC engines.
  • The programmes on Micro-plastic management and alternative to micro-plastic to provide the cleaner solutions are under consideration. Further, demonstration projects integrated bio refineries would also be prioritized.

The Indian Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) was launched in March 2019 and provides a 20-year perspective and outlines actions needed to provide access to sustainable cooling. India is the first country in the world to have a Cooling Action Plan.